Raleigh Fire Department History

1990-1999

1990

Nineteen stations protecting 91.4 square miles and 212,092 residents.


Fatal fire at duplex at 6007 Applewood Lane. Fire, which starts about 4 a.m., forces two residents to jump to safety and kills a third person. Structural damage is estimated at $90,000. Also author's first fire. He is asleep at Station 9 when the buzzer sounds at 3:53 a.m. The run is a full four minutes, with flames visible from at least a block away. The two-story structure is fully-involved. Engine 9 arrives first with the author backing the hose man. Flames blast through the front door when they make entry. A body is later discovered. Smoke alarms had awakened two men sleeping upstairs. They jumped out a window, one breaking his leg. Their overnight guest, a 37-year-old female was still inside. They tried to reenter but were overcome by heat and smoke. The cause of the fire is not immediately known. [UF] (January 28, 1990)no28jan90, oh

Engine 5 overturns at intersection of South Wilmington and Smithfield Streets. The EEI/Pemfab pumper overturns while en route to the shop after striking car that apparently runs a red light. Driver Reggie Hocutt, lone occupant, suffers minor injuries. [AI] (February 25, 1990)no26feb90

Mobile and portable radios reprogrammed with channels for:

  1. Fire Repeater
  2. Fire Simplex
  3. Fire Admin
  4. Wake County Fire 1
  5. Wake County Fire 2
  6. Rescom
  7. NCSU Channel 4
  8. RDU CFR
  9. Hospital EMS 2
  10. North Carolina Fire
  11. Eng. Insp.
  12. Parks & Recreation
  13. Pub. St.
  14. Haz-Mat  (R7 log book, February 7, 1990)

Apartments at 1135 Crab Orchard burn. Three alarms. [MF] (March 5, 1990)

County Courthouse on Fayetteville Street Mall burns. Four alarms. 191 prisoners are evacuated from the jail. Fires deliberately set in one or more courtrooms. [MF] (March 18, 1990)yb02+

Recruit academy #14 graduates 17 firefighters. The academy started on February 14 and lasted 20 weeks. The graduation ceremony is conducted at the City Council Chambers. (June 30, 1990)rfd

Apparatus notes:

  • 1990 Spartan / LTI aerial ladder. Placed in service as Truck 11 at 1200 hours. (August 24, 1990)rfd
  • 1986 Seagrave aerial ladder moved from Station 11 to Station 15. Photos and more information. (around August 24, 1990)

Two alarms in 200 block of E. Cabarrus Street. [MF] (September 18, 1990)

Apparatus deliveries, first closed-cab apparatus for fire department.

  • 1989 Pierce Lance pumper, placed in service as Engine 3 (October 3, 1990)
  • 1989 Pierce Lance pumper, placed in service as Engine 5 (around October 3, 1990)yb84
    Photos and more information.

Apparatus note: Haz-Mat 20 moved from Station 2 (November 12, 1990). yb02+

Engine 13 and Truck 8 become haz-mat companies, along with Engine 20. This ensures that twelve haz-mat technicians are on duty and available, per NFPA standards. (Around November 1990)yb02+

Two alarms at 554 New Bern Avenue. [MF] (November 19, 1990)

Murray Tire Service at 119 S. Harrington Street burns. Two alarms. [MF] (November 22, 1990)

Glenwood Towers at 509 Glenwood Avenu burns. Two alarms. [MF] (December 27, 1990)


1991

Meserve Hall at Shaw University at 118 E. South Street burns. Four alarms. Dispatched about 4:15 p.m. Fire guts the top two floors of the brick, Queen Anne-style building. The structure is 96 years-old. [MF] (January 23, 1991)no24jan91, rfd

Westgrove Towers at 4700 Westgrove Street burns. Two alarms. [MF] (April 1, 1991)rfd

Clancy & Theys Construction Company shop at 550 W. Cabarrus Street burns. Three alarms. Dispatched about 5:00 p.m. Firefighters battle the blaze for "more than two hours." Smoke is reportedly seen as far as Wake Forest. "More than 500 people" gather and, at one point, police officers have to "walk between the trains at the nearby Amtrak Station" and top onlookers from standing atop "parked freight cars" for a better view. "Nine engine companies, two rescue companies, a special rescue unit, 40 firefighters, and five fire chiefs" respond. [MF] (April 20, 1991)no21apr91, rfd

Two 1991 Chevrolet Kodiak/Frontline rescue units delivered, placed in service as Rescue 6 and Rescue 7.

  • Rescue 6 placed in service on April 19, 1991.
  • Rescue 7 placed in service by May 1991.

Photos and more information. (April-May 1991)

Chemical fire at Accudyne at 5800 McHines Place forces evacuation. Fire reported about 6:15 a.m. Residents and business owners allowed back into area at approximately 11:30 a.m. [HM] (June 21, 1991)no

Montecito Apartments at 1333 Hardimont Road burn. Two alarms. Reported about 2:00 a.m. Flames are showing through room on arrival of firefighters. Firefighters assist with evacuated residences. Twelve of 16 apartments in two-story building destroyed, with 23 residents displaced. One resident killed. Two aerial streams utilized. Two firefighters treated for heat exhaustion and dehydration. [MF] (July 7, 1991)no08jul91, rfd

Wakefield Apartments at 3200 Calumet Drive burn. Two alarms. [MF] (July 10, 1991)rfd

Cooper's Pond Apartments at 6057 Shade Tree Lane burn. Two alarms. Dispatched 4:30 p.m. One unit destroyed, and three damaged. Started by lightning. [MF] (July 26, 1991)no27jul91

Apparatus note: 1991 Simon/Duplex/E-One haz-mat unit placed in service as Haz-Mat 20. Photos and more information. (August 14 or 15, 1991)rfd

Montecito Apartments at 3939 Wake Forest Road burn. Three alarms. Four units destroyed, eight others heavily damaged. Arrival about 2:00 p.m. with flames breaking through roof of corner apartment and spreading through attic space to other units. Fire apparently started during installation of dishwasher, when propane torch ignited some wiring. No injuries. [MF] (August 27, 1991)no28aug91, rfd

Recruit academy #15 graduates 25 firefighters. The academy started on February 13 and lasted 26 weeks. The graduation ceremony is conducted at the City Council Chambers. (August 30, 1991)rfd

Raleigh Fire Department Photo Unit established by a pair of local fire buffs who wanted to combine their interests in photography and the fire service. The founders included local architect and later FireNews.net creator Jeff Harkey. They responded to working fires and other significant incidents. They also provided their services for special events as well as for stock photography needs. The photo unit operates through the mid-nineties. Lee Wilson is added as an official fire department photographer in 1994. He'd been taking photos since 1990 and becomes a familiar fixture at fire scenes for over two decades. (September 1991)chb

Captain S. T. Eudy becomes first haz-mat team coordinator. (October 1, 1991)yb02+

Station note: Station 7 address changed to 2100 Glascock Street from 1300 Glascock Street. (October 9, 1991)rfd

Fire Administration, Prevention, and Inspection offices move into Professional Building at 123-127 W. Hargett Street. Photos and more information. (November 1991)rfd

Apparatus note: Foam Unit 12 placed in service at Station 12 with a 1968 American LaFrance pumper. (December 3, 1991)rfd

Apparatus note: SR1 moved from Station 1 to Station 5. Unit retains name SR1 for about five months. (December 14, 1991)rfd

First Battalion Chief, or Shift Supervisor, placed in service on full-time basis (December 16, 1991). rfd, oh

1992

Apartments at 522 Dorothea Drive burn. Two alarms. Dispatched about 8:00 a.m. Two-story building has one room gutted. Fire controlled in about 20 minutes. Units include E13, E1, T1, R7, C52, E5, E2, T8, R6, C53, C51. [MF] (February 12, 1992)rpu, no13feb92

Brentwood West Apartments at 3830 Brentwood Road burn. Two alarms. Dispatched about 5:00 p.m. One unit gutted, and two others damaged. Fire controlled in about 15 minutes. [MF] (February 13, 1992)no14feb92

Light plane crashes in Umstead Park. See Raleigh-Durham Airport Emergency Services history. [AA] (February 18, 1992)

Runaway hot-air balloon crashes at intersection of Millbrook and Green Roads after tangling in traffic signal lines about 3:30 p.m. Neither the pilot nor his passenger is injured attempting to launch from a soccer field off Millbrook Road. Pilot is cited for taking off within city limits without permit. City and state workers take about two hours to untangle balloon and wires. [AA] (March 1, 1992)no02mar92

Boarding house at 220 E. Cabarrus Street burns. Two alarms. E3, E13, T1, R7, C52, E5, E12, T8, R6, C53, E15 relief. Formerly Lewis Hotel, the building was built in 1923 by Needham and Hattie Lewis. The "two-story brick-veneer building was covered with a hipped roof and featured a two-story recessed front porch over the main entrance" and for many years was, with the Lightner Arcade, the only accommodations in Raleigh for African Americans. [MF] (March 5, 1992)rpu, no06mar92

Gospel Chapel Church at 500 E. Franklin Street burns. Two alarms, dispatched about 2:00 a.m. E3, E7, T1, R7, C52, E1, E13, T8, R6, C51, E16 relief, E19 relief. The church was built in 1935, with additions in 1955. [MF] (March 6, 1992)no07mar92, rpu

Townhomes at 6205 Waterside Lane burn. Three alarms. Dispatched about 3:00 p.m. One townhouse gutted, and another heavily damaged. [MF] (April 17, 1992)no18apr92

Tyler Hall at Shaw University at 118 E. South Street burns. Two alarms. E3, E1, T1, R7, C52, E13, E10, T8, R6, C51, E5, E14 relief, E19 relief. [MF] (April 17, 1992)rpu

Glenwood Towers at 509 Glenwood Avenue burns. Two alarms. Dispatched about 4:45 p.m. Heavy smoke and minor fire in apartment on second-floor. [MF] (May 18, 1992)no19may92

Wake County Social Services storage building at 1701 S. Saunders Street burns. Two alarms. Dispatched about 3:00 a.m.E2, E13, T1, R7, C42, E1, E20, T8, R6. [MF] (May 29, 1992)rpu, no30may92

Raleigh Rescue Mission recycling center at 512 E. Davie Street burns. Two alarms. Dispatched about 10:20 p.m. Controlled in about 15 minutes. Two firefighters suffer minor injuries. [MF] (June 11, 1992)no12jun92

Engine 15 and Truck 15 added to haz-mat companies. (July 1992)yb02+

Institute For Cosmetology Building at 600 Bloodworth Street burns. Three alarms. Flames are spotted shortly after 1 a.m. in the turn-of-the-century brick building being renovated by Shaw University for use as a dormitory after having bought it earlier this year. By 3 a.m., fire has spread throughout the building, shooting from the roof and out of windows. About 40 firefighters battle blaze which is brought under control within three hours. First alarm: E3, E1, T1, R7, C52. Second alarm: E13, E12, T8, R6, C51. Third alarm: E5, E20, T11. [MF] (August 23, 1992)rpu, no24aug92

North Carolina State University senior falls into open manhole in the Brickyard. Accident occurs about 10:00 a.m., when Meredith Ryan drops 10 feet into an underground tunnel. Though uninjured, rescuers from Engine 5 and Rescue 6 keep her in the tunnel for nearly an hour, so she can be strapped into braces and hoisted out of the hole. [TR] (September 14, 1992)no15sep92

Position of Firefighter II, or Engineer, changed to Lieutenant. (September 25, 1992)rfd

The Lofts Apartments at 206 Loft Lane burn. Three alarms. First alarm: E9, E16, T16, R6, C51. Second alarm: E15, E18, T11, R7, C53. Third alarm: E4, E14. Blaze occurs at night. [MF] (October 29, 1992)rpu

Discovery of sliced safety harness on rescue unit prompts suspicion of sabotage. Equipment is impounded and checked by order of City Manager. Firefighters are interviewed. Police investigation reaches "a dead end after six weeks." (November 1, 1992)no

Apartments at 710 W. Jones Street burn. Two alarms. Fire starts about midnight. One fatality. First alarm: E13, E1, T1, R6, C52. Second alarm: E5, E6, T8, R7, C51. [MF] (December 19, 1992)rpu

IGA Grocery Store at 718 N. Person Street destroyed by fire. Three alarms. Alarm sounded at 9:36 p.m. Smoke showing from rear of store around room-mounted air-condition units upon arrival. First-arriving engine calls for second alarm (code 3). Firefighters attempt to force door in rear of building. Two crews enter front of store at approximately 9:55 p.m. Attack crew notices ceiling tiles on floor indicating fire overheard. Volume of fire grows and moves to front of store. Fire beings showing at approximately 9:53. Truck 1 positions to left of building and operates master stream onto roof. Crews ordered to withdraw from building at approximately 12:10 a.m. Additional truck companies establish master streams at front and right side of building. Hand lines required to cool apparatus from radiant heat. Mansard-style canopy on three sides of building becomes fully involved and collapses into parking lot. Crews do not re-enter until following day. Store and contents are total loss. Fire originates in rear of store, but exact cause is unknown. Three firefighters are injured and treated on the scene for smoke inhalation. E3, E7, T1, R7, C52, E4, E11, T11, R6, C51, E6, E16, T16, E1 relief, E14 relief. [MF] (December 20, 1992)rpu, no

First haz-mat computer placed in service. (December 30, 1992)yb02+


First Fire Protection Engineer hired. The position is created as an intern program with the University of Maryland. The position is later changed to a full-time position.

Wake County contracts with City of Raleigh for haz-mat response. yb02+

1993

Parking deck at Crabtree Valley Mall collapses. Reported about 2:00 a.m. [UI] (February 3, 1993)rfd

Martin Architectural Building Products at 3911 Beryl Road burns. Two alarms. Fire is reported at 2:33 a.m. by resident at 3005 Richward Place who awakens and smells burning electrical wires. His apartment is about 60 feet from corner of Martin building. Due to distant fire hydrant, firefighters tunnel through ground underneath railroad tracks between Beryl Road and Hillsborough Street to run a fire hose 300 to 400 feet to a hydrant on Hillsborough Street. Fire takes several hours to control. E8, E5, T8, R6, C53 on first alarm. E14, E20, T1, R7, C51 on second alarm. [MF] (February 12, 1993)rpu, no12feb93

City Council considers closing "four fire stations in and around downtown" and "building two new stations to replace them." Consolidation process is proposed, which would trim 24 firefighter positions and save up to $800,000, plus benefits. Plan includes closing Stations 1 and 3 and building new building near Martin Luther King Boulevard and Haywood Street, as well as closing Stations 1 and 5 and constructing a new station near Wade Avenue and St. Mary's Street. Citizens later protest. Plan is eventually dropped. (February 1993)no

Two alarms at Shelton's Used Furniture at 2654 S. Saunders Street burns. Dispatched about 1:00 a.m. Controlled within 45 minutes. Building is completed destroyed. E2, E13, T1, R6, C52 on first alarm. E1, E5, T8, T7, C51 on second alarm. E7, E17 for relief. E19, E3 for relief. [MF] (April 4, 1993)rpu, no05apr93

Arnold Concrete Company factory at 1300 Kirkland Road burns. Three alarms. Dispatched in afternoon. Reported by District Chief. Abandoned factory found on fire, and two woods fires. Controlled in about 30 minutes. E2, E20, T1, R5, C53 on first alarm. E13, E3, C52 on second alarm. E4 on third alarm. [MF] (April 4, 1993)rpu, no05apr93

Chemical fire in laboratory at Daniels Hall at North Carolina State University causes haz-mat response during final-exam week. Subsequent power outage caused by squirrel crawling into transformer sets off multiple fire alarms. [HM] [UF] (May 3, 1993)no

Bryan Building on Daniels Street in Cameron Village burns. Three alarms. Dispatched 5:46 a.m. Controlled after about 2.5 hours. E5, E6, T1, R6, C52 on first alarm. E13, E1, T8, R7, C53 on second alarm. E4, E12, T15 on third alarm. Cars 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 12, 70, 71, 72, 73, and a rookie class also respond. [MF] (May 24, 1993)rpu, no25may93

City Museum debuts with "How Fire Has Changed The Face of Raleigh" exhibit. (June 18, 1993)no

House at 2424 Rushing Brook Drive burns. Two alarms. [MF] (June 11, 1993)rfd

Rooming house at 401 New Bern Avenue burns. Two alarms. Dispatched about 10:20 p.m. Controlled by 11:00 p.m. Two nearby houses also sprayed to prevent spreading. E3, E3, T1, R7, C52 on first alarm. E13, E7, T11, R6, C53 on second alarm. [MF] (June 20, 1993)rpu, no21jun93

Station 4 moves to 121 Northway Court. City retains ownership of 2917 Wake Forest Road. Photos and more information. (June 24, 1993)rfd

Gorman Crossings Apartments at 3114-3118 Avent Ferry Road burn. Three alarms. Dispatch about 5:00 p.m. Controlled at 6:15 p.m. Six of eight units destroyed. Outdoor temperature is 95 degrees with heat index of 103 degrees. [MF] (July 4, 1993)rfd, no05jul93

Two alarms at Litchford Park apartments. [MF] (July 10, 1993)rfd

Recruit academy #17 graduates 27 firefighters, including one Wake County and four Wilson firefighters. The academy started on February 8 and lasted 26 weeks. The graduation ceremony is conducted at the City Council Chambers. (July 30, 1993)rfd

Hayes Barton Baptist Church at 1800 Glenwood Avenue burns. Two alarms. Dispatched about 3:30 p.m. Controlled in about 25 minutes and contained to roof. Started when workers accidentally cut a propane line fueling a blowtorch. [MF] (August 17, 1993)no18aug93

House at 1415 Kersaw Drive burns. Two alarms. [MF] (August 31, 1993)rfd

Bashford Place townhouses at 750 Bashford Road burn. Three alarms. Reported about 2:45 p.m. Crews find flames through roof of three-story structure on arrival. Aerial operations utilized. Several firefighters treated for heat exhaustion. Three town homes destroyed. Fourteen fire trucks and 30 firefighters responded. [MF] (September 9, 1993)no10sep93

Vehicle note: Fire safety house delivered. The Serro Travel Trailer Company trailer is 32 feet long. (October 29, 1993, or alternate date, September 7, 1993)rfd

Old Station 4 at 2917 Wake Forest Road becomes Career Development Center, and houses the office for the haz-mat coordinator. Photos and more information. (Fall 1993)yb02+

Fire department implements EMT-D program citywide. Semi-automated external defibrillators were installed on all engine, ladder, and rescue company apparatus. Firefighters began using the devices to administer electrical shocks to patients suffering from life-threatening cardiac conditions. Within two weeks, Engine 11 had the first confirmed save. Over the years, the defibrillators are replaced with fully automated units that were also smaller and lighter. (November 29, 1993)rfd, chb

Confined space rescue team trained. A total of 65 firefighters are training with 60 hours of classroom and drill training. The team is trained as new federal legislation requires industries with employees who work in confined spaces to have a confined space rescue team, or contract for such a service. Since the city is such an industry, with public works and utility employees, the city manager decides RFD should offer the service throughout the city. (November 1993)no26nov93

1994

Inmates riot at Polk Youth Center on Blue Ridge Road. Nearly 200 inmates usher in the New Year "with a two-hour rampage, breaking dozens of windows and ripping sinks and toilets from the floor." Two fire units are dispatched to stand by. [UI] (January 1, 1994)no

Wakestone Gardens at 3917 Lassiter Mill Road burns. Two alarms. Dispatched at 10:09 p.m. Controlled in about two hours. Two-story, 6,000 square-foot main building destroyed just south of Beltline bridge. [MF] (January 5, 1994)no

Apartments at 322-H Dacian Road burn. Two alarms. [MF] (January 22, 1994)lw, rfd

Apartment at 1215 Hillsborough Street burns. Two alarms. Dispatched about 5:30 a.m. Three-story building with businesses on first floor. Magic Corner & Costume Shop has smoke and water damage. [MF] (January 24, 1994)no25jan94

Fire Administration and Prevention / Inspections offices move into Dillon Building at 310 W. Martin Street. Photos and more information. (January 1994)rfd

Watson's Flea Market restaurant at 1436 Rock Quarry Road burns. Two alarms. Dispatched about 7:45 p.m. Controlled in about 40 minutes. Truck 1 deployed to spray water into rear of two-story concrete-block building. [MF] (February 12, 1994)no13feb94, lw

Sir Walter Raleigh Hotel at 400 Fayetteville Street Mall burns. Two alarms. Fire starts in room 319. Heavy smokes fills 70 year-old building as 135 residents are evacuated. [MF] (April 20, 1994)rfd, lw

Montecito West Apartments at 4105 Bland Road burn. Two alarms. Dispatched about 9:30 p.m. Three apartments damaged. [MF] (April 30, 1994)no01may94, lw

Irregardless Cafe at 901 W. Morgan Street burns. Two alarms. Dispatched about 1:50 a.m. Much of building involved on arrival. [MF] (May 24, 1994)lw, no25may94

Capital Inn at 1625 Capital Boulevard burns. Two alarms. [MF] (May 28, 1994)lw

Mission Valley Inn at 2110 Avent Ferry Road burns. Two alarms. [MF] (June 21, 1994)lw

New radio channels operational, Fire Tac 3 (repeater)and Fire Tac 4 (direct). The repeater channel is for Code 2 and Code 3 fires, for major operations, and as back-up. (By July 18, 2004)rfd

Crown Court Apartments on Crown Court burn. Three alarms. Dispatched about 11:00 p.m. Firefighters break through adjoining apartment to extinguish blaze. Reportedly started by 11-year-old girl playing with candles in her bedroom and knocking one over. [MF] (August 28, 1994)no29aug94

"Trauma protocol in effect" implemented for patients meeting criteria on medical calls. The radio code starts a hospital notification procedure. (September 1, 1994)rfd

Fire department television channel moves from Channel 59 to Channel 22. (September 1994)rfd

Caraleigh Furniture warehouse at 1600 S. Saunders Street burns. Three alarms. Dispatch about 1:30 p.m. Controlled in about an hour. One firefighter with minor burns. [MF] (November 12, 1994)no13nov94

Recruit academy #18 graduates 23 firefighters, including two Wake County firefighters. The academy started on May 31 and lasted 25 weeks. The graduation ceremony is conducted at the City Council Chambers. (November 23, 1994)rfd

Fire department enters North Carolina Police and Fire Olympics for first time. (November 1994)yb02+


Engine 3 becomes first company to run over 2,000 calls in one year, answering 2,073 calls in 1994. rfd

1995

Shellbrook Apartments at 913 Shellbrook Court burn. Two alarms. Four units destroyed during early morning blaze. [MF] (January 25, 1995)no, lw

Apartments at 1125 S. State Street burn. Two alarms. [MF] (January 28, 1995)rfd

Monticeto Apartments at 3939 Wake Forest Road burn. Two alarms. [MF] (February 24, 1995)lw

Apparatus delivery: 1995 Simon-Duplex / LTI aerial platform, placed in service as Truck 16. Photos and more information. (February 27, 1995)lw

Goodwin Refrigeration at 808 S. Saunders Street burns. Two alarms. Dispatch 2:34 p.m. Eight fire department vehicles on scene. Abandoned warehouse. [MF] (April 16, 1995)no17apr95

Jonny B. Sandy appointed fourteenth Fire Chief, serves 1995-1999. Sandy joined the fire department in 1964. (July 1, 1995)yb84

First high-level rescue performed. Two window repairmen rescued from outside the seventh floor of Wake Country Public Safety Center after their motorized scaffolding fails at approximately 2:15 p.m., causing "one side of the platform to fall from beneath the men." Firefighters take over an hour to " set up the rescue" which includes inflating a "giant air mattress on the third-floor ceiling, about 40 feet below the workers." Firefighter Mike Davidson is lowered from the top of the eleven-story building and both workers are rescued "in about 15 minutes." [TR] (May 3, 1995)no04may95, chb

Two alarms at 1400 Kirkland Drive. [MF] (July 8, 1995)rfd

Bomb explosion at 4300 Six Forks Road. BTI Building on fifth floor. [UI] (July 10, 1995)lw

Two alarms at 1917 Cambridge Way. [MF] (July 17, 1995)rfd

High-level rescue training started. (July 1995)

Two alarms at 1500 Burgandy Street. [MF] (October 25, 1995)rfd

Two alarms at 900 S. Boylan Street. [MF] (November 10, 1995)rfd

Two alarms at 3700 Six Forks Road. [MF] (November 12, 1995)rfd

Two alarms at 1605 Park Drive. [MF] (November 22, 1995)rfd

Fatal house fire at 2515 Clark Avenue. Two alarms. [MF] (December 13, 1995)no14dec95, lw


Apparatus deliveries:

  • 1995 Pierce Dash pumper, placed in service as Engine 11
  • 1995 Pierce Dash pumper, placed in service as Engine 15
    Photos and more information.

1996

Raleigh firefighters compete in " World Challenge Four," after qualifying in regional competition in Charlotte. Six firefighters travel to Tampa, Florida for weekend competition against the "best from the United States, Canada, and Australia." This is the first year the department qualifies for the international challenge. (January 4, 1996)no

Cedar Point Apartments at 6512 Suburban Drive burn. Two alarms? Residents in 11 units displaced from homes. One women jumps from third-floor balcony after throwing three her children into the waiting arms of men below. All four are caught safely. [MF] (February 1, 1996)no

Fatal apartment fire at 462 Dorothea Drive. Two alarms. Three children killed. Firefighters rescue a 4 year-old boy who dies from injuries on May 13. Heritage Park Apartments. [MF] (February 2, 1996)rfd

Ice storm strikes Raleigh. "B" shift reports for duty and answers 299 calls during 24-hour period. Historical average to this point is 52 calls per 24-hours. [WE] (February 2, 1996)rfd

Roadhouse Restaurant at 3714 Capital Boulevard burns. Two alarms, dispatched about 12:30 p.m. Ten employees and several dozen customers escape unharmed. Fire controlled in about 45 minutes. [MF] (February 7, 1996)lw, no08feb96

Westbrook Auto Sales at 2110 Capital Boulevard burns. Two alarms, dispatched at 1:54 a.m., arrived at 1:59 a.m. Later upgraded to second alarm. E7, E11, T11, R7, C52, E1, T3, T1, R6, SR5, C51, C5, C1, C2, C10, C12, M9 for relief. [MF] (May 1, 1996)lw

Village of Pickwick Apartments at 4004 Twickenham Court burn. Three alarms. Nine of 12 units destroyed and three others heavily damaged during early morning fire. Dispatched at 4:28 a.m.. E17, E16, T8, R6, C53, C51, SR5, E9, E18, T11, R7, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, T15, E8, E4. Relief companies E2, T1, E13, etc. [MF] (May 4, 1996)no, lw

Two alarms at 747 Wintergreen Drive. [MF] (June 1, 1996)

Recruit academy #19 graduates 33 firefighters, 32 men and one woman. Positions are filled from more than 500 applicants. The academy started on January 8 and lasted 20 weeks. The graduation ceremony is conducted in Room D at the Raleigh Civic and Convention Center. (May 24, 1996)rfd

Fatal fire at 630 Sunnybrook Road. Gasoline can causes ignition when flames ignite from gas can being used to refill lawn mowers. Officials investigate "whether the 49-year-old woman was smoking when she walked up to the can of gasoline." [UF] (July 8, 1996)no

Hurricane Bertha strikes southern North Carolina, eye of Category 3 storm making landfall southwest of Wilmington, NC, with 105 mph winds at 5:00 p.m. Eye passes east of Raleigh with 100 mph winds about 11:00 p.m. [WE] (July 12, 1996)wral

Two alarms at 4001 Beryl Road. [MF] (August 3, 1996)

Hurricane Fran strikes eastern North Carolina, eye of Category 3 storm making landfall near Wilmington, NC, with 114 mph winds at 11:00 p.m. Eye of storm passes west of Raleigh around 7:00 a.m. City receives 10.46 inches of rain and wind gusts as high as 79 miles per hour. Power outages are widespread with all 420 traffic signals in the city limits believed out at sunrise on September 6, 1996. Many roads are blocked by trees from the I-440 beltline down to the smallest residential street. Flooding is severe along Crabtree Creek, which rises 16 feet in 14 hours, cresting at 7 feet above flood stand and flooding numerous roads and intersections, including the Glenwood Avenue bridge and Wake Forest Road south of Six Forks Road. By 4:25 p.m., the lower level of Crabtree Valley Mall is flooded with a foot of water. Guests at the Sheraton Hotel at Crabtree Valley are stranded by 6 feet of run over from the creek. Residents in Forest Acres off Wake Forest Road retreat to rooftops. Off-duty personnel recalled for only second time since 1988 tornado. Engine 2 makes dramatic rescue of Wayne Smith from bed of pick-up truck, marooned for over an hour in fast-moving water at intersection of Wilmington and Fayetteville streets. Engine is driven down Wilmington Street and Smith leaps aboard moving pumper. Captain Rusty Ross is quoted in subsequent News & Observer article "we had to keep it steady. If we didn't keep a steady speed, water would have gotten into the tailpipe and stalled the engine." [WE] (September 6, 1996)wral

Hillman Dormitory at Meredith College burns. Two alarms. [MF] (September 17, 1996)

Rooming house at 2315 Hillsborough Street burns. Two alarms. Dispatch about 5:00 p.m. Controlled in about an hour. Fire closes Hillsborough Street for several hours. E5, E13, T1, R6, C52, SR5, E8, E1, T8, R7, C2, C3, C5, C12, M9, E10 relief, C198, E2 relief. "B" shift. [MF] (October 4, 1996)lw, no05oct96

State Employees Credit Union at 811 Hillsborough Street burns. Additional companies called due to fire on roof, in generator room, and sulfuric acid leaking into building. E5, E13, T8, T11, R6, SR5, C51, C53, C1, C2, C3, C5, C12, HM20."B" shift. [HM] (October 18, 1996)lw

Radisson Plaza at Salisbury and Davie streets burns. Two alarms. [MF] (November 8, 1996)

Two alarms at 2120 Larson Drive. [MF] (December 11, 1996)


Engine 3 responds to 2,037 calls in one year, breaking previous response records. rfd

Fire department computer system goes into full operation. rfd

1997

Two alarms on Essex Circle. [MF] (February 16, 1997)

Apparatus note: Mini 9 is removed from service, after an non-response accident at 4513 Lead Mine Road. The 1986 Chevy mini-pumper is totaled. [AI] (March 14, 1997)rfd

Renovations completed to Keeter Training Center including classroom and office space upstairs and storage space downstairs. (March, 1997)rfd

Career Development Center at old Station 4 closed. Haz-mat Coordinator office is moved Public Works facility on West Street. The Wake Forest Road building is subsequently sold to a software company. (April 15, 1997)yb02+

Training Division changes to four-day work week, similar to Fire Prevention/Inspection. (Spring 1997)

YMCA at 1601 Hillsborough Street burns. Two alarms. Smoke coming from roof on arrival. Fire found in electrical room in basement. E5, E13, T1, R7, C52, R6, C1, C3, C4, C12, SR5, E1, E6, T8, C51, and E16 and T16 for relief. [MF] (June 2, 1997)lw

Recruit academy #20 graduates 18 firefighters. The academy started on January 6 and lasted 25 weeks. The graduation ceremony is conducted at the City Council Chambers. (June 27, 1997)rfd

Stonehenge Townhomes at 7639 Trowbridge Court burn. Two alarms. Fully-involved on arrival. E18, E16, T16, R6, C51, SR5, C2, C5, C53, C3, C10, C198, E4, E17, T15, R7. Coverage with T8, E8, E7. Relief with E9, E14. [MF] (August 2, 1997)lw

Rapid Intervention Teams (RIT) placed in service. Requires response of third engine company to all working structure fires. (September 1, 1997)rfd

Two alarms at 1700 Proctor Street. [MF] (September 18, 1997)

Raleigh firefighters take top honors in "Toughest Firefighter Alive" competition in Charlotte, part of the North Carolina Fire and Police Olympics. First place awarded to Raleigh Team 1, second place awarded to Raleigh Team 2. (September, 1997)no

Raleigh / Wake County Emergency Communications Center starts EMD program. (Fall 1997)rfd

Two alarms at 4325 Glenwood Avenue. [MF] (November 16, 1997)

Two alarms at 2201 Spring Forest Road. [MF] (December 9, 1997)

Two alarms on Mine Lake Court. [MF] (December 14, 1997)

House at 2700 Lakeview Drive burns. Two alarms. Large house under construction. Second alarm on arrival. E9, E16, T16, R6, C51, E16, T4, T1, R7, C53, SR5, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C198. Special called T8 and E14. Overnight fire, with companies remaining on scene all day next day. New recruits also on scene. [MF] (December 19, 1997)lw

Vehicle note: Car 46, a 1998 Ford F series fuel truck is moved or placed in service at Station 15. (December 1997)rfd

Insurance Services Organization (ISO)grades city. (December 1997)rfd


Apparatus deliveries:

  • 1997 Pierce Saber pumper, placed in service as Engine 7 on April 8, 1997
  • 1997 Pierce Saber pumper, placed in service as Engine 2 on April 15, 1997
  • 1997 Pierce Saber pumper, placed in service as Engine 5 on June 5, 1997
  • 1997 Pierce Saber pumper, placed in service as Engine 9 on August 11, 1997
  • 1997 Pierce Saber pumper, placed in service as Engine 3 by August 16, 1997
  • 1997 Pierce Saber pumper, placed in service as Engine 12 on August 27, 1997
    Photos and more information.

1998

Apparatus notes:

  • Mini 17 is removed from service and moved to Station 9.
  • Mini 9 is returned to service.
  • The confined space rescue trailer is moved from Station 17 to Station 20. (January 7, 1998)rfd

McBryde Building at 900 S. Boylan Avenue at Dorothea Dix Hospital burns. Two alarms. Fire on third floor, in single bedroom. Heavy smoke throughout building. One subject transported with burns. E13, E2, T1, R6, C52, E1, E20, T8, R7, C53, C1, C2, C3, C5, C10, C12, SR5. [MF] (January 9, 1998)lw

Hollows Apartments at 4001 Deep Hollow Drive burn. Two alarms. our units destroyed. Dispatch 2:58 p.m. Started in attic above end unit, and spread over three other second-floor units. Fire under control by 3:30 p.m. E17, E14, T16, R6, C53, SR5, E16, E8, T8, R7, C52, E8, C2, C3, C5, C10, C12, special call E6. Overnight fire watch with Mini 9 then Mini 3. [MF] (January 30, 1998)no31jan98, lw

Angus Barn at 9401 Glenwood Avenue burns. Two alarms. Fire above kitchen with extension into roof and attic. E17, E14, E16, T16, T8, R6, R7, C53, C51, SR5, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C198; Durham Highway E2, E3, T9, Tanker 8; Six Forks E126; Bay Leaf and Fairgrounds to Durham Highway for coverage; E13 to 17 for coverage. [MF] (February 1, 1998)lw

Quail Corners Shopping Center at 1302 E. Millbrook Road burns. Two alarms. Dispatched about midnight. Andy's Pizza suffers fire damage. Other businesses suffer smoke damage. Fire through roof on arrival. Truck 11 operating as aerial stream. Believed started by electrical outlet in kitchen. E15, E11, T15, C51, R6, SR5, E9, E19, E17, T11, R7, C52, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C198, C12, E12 special called, E13 to 15, E7 to 11 [MF] (February 8, 1998)lw, no10feb98

Two alarms at 2800 Dillmark. [MF] (March 5, 1998)

Two alarms at 6808 Whispering Pines. [MF] (March 17, 1998)

Two alarms at 3208 Spotswood Street. [MF] (March 30, 1998)

Apartments at 1500 Mary Francis Place burn. Two alarms. Two-story apartments, half fully-involved. Early morning fire. Dispatched 2:15 a.m. E8, T8, E20, R6, C53, E5, E6, E14, T1, R7, C1, C3, C4, C5, C52, C10, C198, E18 for relief, E13 to 8, E4 to 1. Truck 8 operating as aerial stream. [MF] (March 30, 1998)lw

Response to working structure fires changed from one to two truck companies. (April 15, 1998)rfd

Recruit academy #21 graduates 35 firefighters. The academy started on October 27, 1997 and lasted 24 weeks. The graduation ceremony is conducted in Pittman Auditorium at Saint Mary's College. (May 1, 1998)rfd

Scramble Dog Inn at 5645 Western Boulevard burns. Two alarms. Fully-involved on arrival. Dispatched at 1:44 a.m., arrived at 1:48 a.m. E8, T8, E14, R7, C53, C5, SR5, E5, E20, E7, E18, T15, T1, C1, C3, C4, C10, C12, E13 to 8, E10 for relief, C198. Companies stayed all morning and into afternoon. Mini 9 for evening watch. [MF] (May 4, 1998)yb02+, lw

Station 21opens at 5621 Southall Road. Engine 21 placed in service with 1975 Mack pumper. Photos and more information. (June 15, 1998)yb02+, no07jul98

Station 22 opens at 9350 Durant Road. Engine 22 placed in service with 1985 Pirsch pumper. Photos and more information. (July 31, 1998)yb02+, no07jul98

Chemical spill at Williams Hall at North Carolina State University. Sulfuric acid and ammonia leak, E5, E13, T8, R7, E8, HM20, SR5, C52, C5, C2, C10, C73, SR20, E14 to 8, special called E15 and T15. [HM] (August 12, 1998)lw

Hurricane Bonnie strikes southern North Carolina, eye of Category 3 storm making landfall near Wilmington with 115 mph winds at 11:00 a.m. Eye passes southeast of Raleigh with 85 mph winds about 7:00 a.m. [WE] (August 27, 1998)wral

Recruit academy #22 graduates 20 firefighters. The academy started on August 17and lasted 7 weeks. The graduation ceremony is conducted at the City Council Chambers. (October 2, 1998)rfd

Apparatus note: Rescue 7 moved to Station 21. (October 14, 1998)rfd

Sir Walter Apartments at 400 Fayetteville Street Mall burn. Two alarms. Fire on ninth floor, single room. Dispatched 2:46 p.m. E1, E13, T1, C5, then C52, C51, T11, R6. Second alarm E2, E6, T8, R21, SR 5, C1, C2, C3, C4, C198, C90, C71, C72, five EMS units, EMS 103, EMS 105. E16 and C53 to 1, T15 to 11. [MF] (October 15, 1998)lw

Two alarms at 4744 Courtney Lane. [MF] (October 24, 1998)

The Lakes Apartments at 6601 Lake Hill Drive burn. Two alarms. Original dispatched as electrical investigation, just after midnight. E15, E9, T15, T11, C51, C5, SR5, E4, E19, T8, R6, C3, C1, R21, C198, C2. [MF] (December 5, 1998)lw

Two alarms at 2800 Kidd Road. [MF] (December 10, 1998)

Gasoline tanker explodes and burns on Beltline just west of Capital Boulevard. Late-evening accident kills driver when abandoned vehicle is struck jutting from shoulder. Residents in nearby Brentwood hear explosion; hear smoke detectors go off from wafting smoke. Adjacent brush also burns and is contained by engine companies at Highwoods Office Park, above incident. County departments provide tankers for water support; RDU CFR sends crash truck. Fire burns both at crash site and at bottom of storm-drain slope. Firefighters let same burn itself out. Gasoline tanker with 9,100 gallons of gas explodes and burns on Beltline just west of Capital Boulevard. Late-evening accident kills driver when abandoned vehicle is struck jutting from shoulder. Residents in nearby Brentwood hear explosion; hear smoke detectors go off from wafting smoke. Adjacent brush also burns and is contained by engine companies at Highwoods Office Park, above incident. County departments provide tankers for water support; RDU CFR sends crash truck. Fire burns both at crash site and at bottom of storm-drain slope. Firefighters let same burn itself out. E11, E7, E9, T11, E12, F12, HM20, SR20, E4, T1, E5, C51, C53, C52, C73, C3, C198. Mutual aid tankers from Western Wake, Garner, Knightdale, and Six Forks. [UF] [TF] (December 18, 1998)no20dec98, lw

Quail Corners Shopping Center at 5046 Falls of Neuse Road burns. Three alarms. Dispatched 10:25 a.m. Fire starts in second-floor storage room of Eckerd Drugs. Reported after storekeepers see smoke in heating ducts and smell smoke in other stores. Controlled in about two hours. T15, E15, E9, R6, C51, T11. Second alarm: E11, E19, T16, SR5, C1, C2, C3, C4, C12, C53, C198. Third alarm: E16, E13, T8, then E5, E10, E2, T1 special called, then E1, E8, E7. Coverage: E14 to 9, E21 to 19. [MF] (December 28, 1998)no29dec98, lw


Raleigh Fire Department receives Education Institution status from the state Office of Emergency Medical Services and begins conducting its own EMT certification and recertification classes. (1998)chb

Apparatus deliveries: 

  • 1998 Pierce Saber pumper, placed in service as Engine 1 on June 30, 1998
  • 1998 Pierce Saber pumper, placed in service as Engine 13
    Photos and more information.

1999

Dominion on Spring Forest Apartments at 5000-F Sedgewick Drive burn. Two alarms. Five units with damage, at least one gutted. Dispatched 6:50 p.m. Controlled in about 40 minutes. Fire starts in second-story apartment and climbs to roof. E19, E15, T15, T11, R21, C51, E11, E21, T8, R6, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, E22, C10, C52, C198, E6 and T8 to 11, E13 to 15. [MF] (January 4, 1999)lw, no05jan99

Market Exchange Building at State Farmer's Market at 1750 Lake Wheeler Road burns. Two alarms. Dispatch about 7:00 p.m. Heavy flames and smoke from roof on arrival. Controlled in about an hour. Ten businesses displaced. E2, E13, T1, T8, R6, C52, E1, E20, T1, R21, C53, SR5, C3, C198, E5, E16, E15 to 1, relief companies E9 and E19 later in night. [MF] (January 24, 1999)lw, no25jan99

Timberlake Apartments at 3051 Lake Woodard Drive burn. Two alarms. Dispatched 12:15 p.m. E11, E7, T11, T1, R21, C51, E12, E21, T8, R6, C52, SR5, C1, C3, C4, C5. [MF] (January 31, 1999)lw

Foxy Lady at 1817 Capital Boulevard burns. Two alarms. Heavy fire showing from attic on arrival. Dispatched 1:44 a.m., arrived 1.48 a.m. E11, E7, T11, T1, R21, C52, second alarm: E1, E13, T15, R6, C52, SR5, C1, C3, C4, C5, C198. [MF] (February 1, 1999)lw

Sir Walter Raleigh Apartments at 400 Fayetteville Street Mall burn. Two alarms. Fire on fifth floor. Dispatched 9:25 a.m. E1, E13, T1, T8, R6, C52, E3, E5, T11, R21, C51, C1, C3, C5, SR5, C198. [MF] (February 6, 1999)lw

Apartment at 3015 Lake Woodard Drive burns. Two alarms. One unit fully involved. Dispatched 3:49 p.m., arrived 3:52 p.m. E11, E21, T11, T1, R21, C52, E7, E12, T8, R6, C53, SR5, C1, C3, C4, C5, C198. [MF] (March 4, 1999)lw

Science building at E. Millbrook Middle School at 3801 Spring Forest Road burns. Two alarms. Dispatched as smoke investigation about 5:45 p.m. Engine 15 with nothing showing, then upgraded. Flames soon breaking through roof of one-story building. E15, E19, E21, T15, R21, C51, E5, E9, E4, T8, T11, R6, C52, SR5, C1, C4, C5, C198, C10, C12, E11, E7, and relief companies E14, E18, T16. Overnight watch and relief: E12 then E6. [MF] (May 4, 1999)no05may99, lw

Boylan Apartments unit explodes and burns. Fire is blamed on illegal drug laboratory. Firefighters called to scene about 10 p.m.. Fire is out and "the occupant, although badly burned, declined all but the most basic medical attention." [UF] (May 8, 1999)no

Apartments at 4545 Hargrove Road burn. Two alarms. Dispatch just before 4:00 a.m. Four-unit structure. Controlled in 40 minutes. Believed started by smoldering barbecue grill charcoal left on deck. [MF] (June 8, 1999)lw, no09jun99

Body shop at Thompson-Cadillac-Olds at 601 Creekside Drive burns. Three alarms. Dispatched 2:35 a.m. First alarm: E11, E6, E9, E7, T11, R6, C51, second alarm: E5, E13, T1, R21, C52, third alarm:: E12, E9, T8, C53, SR5, C2, C3, C4. [MF] (July 16, 1999)lw

Cameron Square Apartments at 4400 Tealford Court burn. Three alarms. Heavy fire through roof on arrival. Dispatched 12:38 p.m. Two firefighters treated for heat exhaustion. E17, E14, E16, T16, R6, C53, E9, E15, E8, T8, R21, SR5, C52, C3, C4, E20, E18, C198, Durham Highway E3, Six Forks E121, 125. [MF] (July 31, 1999)lw, no01aug99

Chief Sandy retires. (July 1, 1999)rfd

Earl F. Fowler appointed fifteenth Fire Chief, serves 1999 to present. Fowler joined the fire department in 1971. (August 2, 1999)

Tropical Storm Dennis strikes eastern North Carolina, eye making landfall at southeastern coast with 70 mph winds at 3:00 p.m.. Eye of storm passes northeast of Raleigh around 1:00 a.m. [WE] (September 5, 1999)wral

Hurricane Floyd strikes eastern North Carolina, eye of Category 2 storm making landfall near Wilmington, NC, with 110 mph winds at 3:00 a.m. Eye of storm passes east of Raleigh around 9:00 a.m. [WE] (September 16, 1999)wral

Two alarms at 8111 Creedmoor Road. [MF] (September 30, 1999)

Two alarms at Shaw University. [MF] (October 15, 1999)

House at Oakwood and East Streets burns. Two alarms. Two-story wood frame building fully-involved. Truck 1 flowing. E7, E3, E1, T1, R6, C52, SR5, C5, special call E13, second alarm: E5, E20, T11, R21, C51, C2, C3, C1, special call E11, overnight watch: E4. [MF] (November 3, 1999)lw

Pine Village Apartments at 1818 Gorman Street burn. Two alarms. Heavy fire in single unit on third floor. E20, E8, E5, T8, R6, C53, E13, E14, T1, R21, C52, C2, C3, C5, SR5, C198. [MF] (November 4, 1999)lw

Recruit academy #23 graduates 36 firefighters. The academy started on June 7 and lasted 26 weeks. The graduation ceremony is conducted at the New Hope Baptist Church. (December 3, 1999)rfd

Apparatus note: Rescue 21 moved to Station 19. (December 5, 1999)rfd


Station 15 addition completed. Rear doors added to apparatus bay. Required as 1988 Pierce Arrow Snorkel, soon to be reassigned to Truck 15, cannot fit through front doors. Millbrook Exchange Park access road curbing also modified to expedite exit from station rear. Photos and more information.

Rapid Intervention Team (RIT)changed from second truck company to third engine company on all structure fire responses, allowing for faster RIT responses.

Apparatus notes:

  • 1980 Mack / 1957 American LaFrance tractor-drawn aerial removed from service and subsequently sold. Truck is later purchased and placed in service by Wendell Fire Department.

Apparatus deliveries:

  • 1999 American LaFrance Eagle aerial platform, placed in service as Truck 1 on April 12, 1999
  • 1999 Quality/ Spartan MetroStar pumper, placed in service as Engine 8
  • Apparatus delivery: 2000 Ford Expedition, placed in service as Car 51. Same is the first sport-utility vehicle for the fire department. Sport-utility vehicles are subsequently adopted for all District Chiefs. Photos and more information.



Abbreviations

[AA]   Aircraft accident
[AI]   Apparatus incident
[EF]   Early fire
[HM]   Haz-mat incident
[MA]   Mutual Aid
[MF]   Major fire
[RA   Railway accident
[TF]   Tanker fire
[TR]   Technical rescue
[UD]   USAR deployment
[UF]   Unusual fire
[UI]   Unusual incident
[WE]   Weather event

Sources

ar   City of Raleigh Annual Report
bd   City of Raleigh budget documents
cvh   Cameron Village: A History 1949-1999, Nan Hutchins, Sprit Press, 2001
cad City of Raleigh Auditor's Office
ccm / cm   City Council Minutes / City Minutes
ccor   1792-1892, The Centennial Celebration of Raleigh, NC, Kemp D. Battle, Edwards and Broughton, 1893
cer   Chief Engineer's Report
dah   North Carolina Department of Archives and History
dahni   North Carolina Department of Archives and History News and Observer index
fp   City of Raleigh Fire Protection Study
hr   Historical Raleigh with Sketches of Wake County and its Important Towns, Moss N. Amis, 1912
oh   Oral History
mp   Morning Post
nc   North Carolinian
no   News and Observer
noi   News and Observer Index
pb   Peter Brock
pph   Pullen Park History
rla   Raleigh Fire Department Ladies Auxiliary scrapbooks
rpu   Raleigh Fire Department Photo Unit records
rr   Raleigh Register
rt   Raleigh Times
ruh   Raleigh: An Unorthodox History
yb84   Raleigh Fire Department 1984, Raleigh Fire Department, Taylor Publishing, 1984
yb02+   Raleigh Fire and Rescue: 1984-2002, Raleigh Fire Department, Taylor Publishing, 2002, plus additional historical information also compiled by the Raleigh Fire Department around 2002.
wch   Wake: Capital County of North Carolina - Volume 1, Prehistory Through Centennial, Elizabeth Reid Murray, Capital County Publishing, 1983


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